Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Impact Of Globalization For Children And Families Economics Essay

The Impact Of Globalization For Children And Families Economics Essay Globalisation perks in the 1990s, in the research studies of Draxler (2006) reported that government of many countries, both developing and developed countries embraced changes towards one global market place (Michael et al., 2003). Though it opens up new revenue for trade, technology, information and knowledge transfer worldwide, globalization helps to aid this world to a more disintegrated sphere (Kolarova, 2006). Rieger et al. (2003) questioned the consequences of cultural and social malfunction due to the influence of globalization. Spybey (1996) also mentioned in his findings that globalisation creates more conflicts in this rapid information networking, trading and technology freedom of this new shift of large-scale manufacturing and producing business establishments worldwide (Goldberg et al., 2007). Researches and report findings by World Bank (2000-2002) found that as different countries step up to change their productive organization of work, it also changes countries social and human capital structures (Willams et al., 2005). The Organisation of Cooperation and Development (OECD) and International Labour Organisation (ILO) reported its finding of globalization leads to a sharp demand of highly educated and skilled labour in developed countries, ironically an upsurge of lowly skilled workers with poor wages, prejudicial social injustice and health care in poor developing countries (Lall, 2002). Marshall (1962) stated the shift of the social relation changes patterns and lifestyle of time and space of mankind. Hence, with the implication of globalization will it cause more poverty or affluence universally (Hartman,2002)? Carnoy (1999) stated when nations open to trade and create more capital affluence and manufacturing goods for exports, there are manufacturing turnover and transferal of employment (Brady et al., 2005). Globalisation rises skills in developed countries however it reduces employment skills and talents in developing countries. For example, in Vietnam if an individual could not sustain himself/herself and his/her family in a small plot of land in hometown. He/she has to sell his/her labour to support his/her family in urbanized cities (Choi et al.,2001). Yet due to globalization he/she may be employed by a global company with highly technologized machinery which made him/her a low skilled worker (Freeman, 2001). Kalarova (2006) claims that in some of developing countries, benefits and welfare for workforce are frequently mistreated by privatized global companies even if countries have employment policies for employees. The lack of social coherence, coordination, sustainability and long term protection policies due to the lack of funding for proper healthcare, eventually leads to a depressed moral opportunity and welfare, depletion of social protection and surge inequality of these low skilled worker in these manual work industries (Milanovic,2002). Likewise, Spybey (1996) argues that in order to finance these worldwide investments in the global finance capital sector, globalisation affects a nations social inequality when it comes to the funding distribution and assets for its education, healthcare and childcare policies and reforms for families and children, resulting to an exploitation of adults and children labour (Michael et al., 2003). Stokey (1991) agrees that in conservative and conventional countries like Thailand and Indonesia, though women rights aid and free women from poverty, exploitation and oppression, Horgar (2001) pointed the contradictory of global capitalism repeatedly decoy women and children to cheap labour with long working hours and poor welfare despite of their desires to be independence from their husband or father at home and that conflicts against its social-cultural aspect of the nations (Edmonds et al.,2001). Moreover, Horgar (2001) argues that as more women enter the global workforce, more children are often left at home alone with relatives or siblings, contributing to its nation increment of non-schooling and poor school attendance children, malnutrition and ill health of children due to the lack of quality care and child-rearing issues (Hatch Grieshaber, 2002).. On the other hand, in the developed countries, globalisation may cause relocation, migration of workers as technology and machinery replaced manual-skilled workers (Willams et al., 2005). Thus, many of these workers are forced to look for more job opportunities in other countries, likewise nations also prefer to send low skilled workers to be trained in well developed country, hoping to increase the countrys technological knowledge and skills, and bringing about the increment of wages and remittance of money to support their families at homeland (Hartman, 2002). Furthermore, as global capitalism took place, it often comes along with poverty and conflicts between its social-cultural backgrounds (Edmonds Pavcnik, 2001). Edmonds et al. (2006) also state that globalization makes and pressures a nation not to be left out but it is important for its nations ability to be part of the global mandate. In 1990s, it is surveyed about 80 million labour forces and work migration from Middle Eastern and African countries to America (Goldberg, 2007). Due to the influx of immigration in America, the survey conducted by Hartman (2002) shows a significant increase of multi-cultural and multi-ethnical aspects in America. Correspondingly, change of family structures in Middle Eastern and African countries affect native families as they no longer could rely on their male breadwinner (Hartman, 2002). The shift of native and immigrants marital status where an individual choose to be lone mother/fatherhood, single or divorced, eventually, leads to decrease of birth rate due to different fertility patterns, notably by postponing birth/ no desire of having children (Horgan, 2001). These factors further afflict and add on to a nations social-economic issue, especially when there is a high reallocation of old aged people in a society due to low birth rate (Freeman, 2001). In addition to it, pressure for globalization also hustle the changes of the worlds social and cultural aspects in peoples lives (Penn, 2005). Statistics an d studies conducted by Waller (2009) show huge distinction and diversity differences as regards to the average of children, life expectancy, school expectancy, illiteracy rate, child labour and in industralised countries, give to the rise of the lack of overall human and childrens rights implementation (Gregory, 1999) . A survey conducted by Cigno et al. (2002) reports that parental decisions often affects children education rights and the national education policies structures, since parents consider the cost of children education, expected returns when they invest in their childrens education and the state educational investment for their children (Roseberg Puntch, 2003). A childs future is frequently contrary to the childs future earning return to the family (Cigno et al., 2002). Thus, in developing countries children are used as domestic helper at home and expose to hard labour, children soldiers and even as prostitutions(Carnoy, 1999). Hence, to counteract these hindrance, a clear and direct government protection policies and subsidies for children education and regular school authority inspections to homes could help to support families on childrens education, which eventually encourage the rise of high educated future population and increase highly skilled trained workers in its human capital investment(Cigno et al., 2002). In the research studies of Timimi (2005) it shows a hugh mortality and morbidity of females and children in poor developing countries due to severe ill health and poor healthcare, where poor national economic has prolonged their poverty (Ravens et al.,2009). A qualitative study conducted by McMichael (2000) native government in developing countries lacks the resources and commitment to aid the problems especially in healthcare such as malnutrition and infectious diseases that come along with poverty. Likewise, urbanized cities in developed countries do struggle with poverty but it is the poverty of health. As the cities open to industrialization and globalization, its residents often at risk with illness and sickness link with pollutions- water, air, chemical and toxic pollutions (Ravens et al., 2009). However, if national policies and international organizations decide on how to implement reliable healthcare policies and improve financial incentives to address states healthcare spending through the development of new medical technology internationally (Draxler, 2006). The integrity of nations policies and commitment to childrens and families welfare are often compromised, as these is no clear solution to the question to protect children and families (Draxler, 2006). Hence, Siraj and Woodhead (2009) sought that if the affluence of globalization recognizes the rights of children and families, countries policy makers have to gear themselves and strengthen their policies through clear, direct implementation and frequent reviews of its nation policies for protection and assurance of quality education, healthcare and welfare for children and families. Government has to step up and act in behalf of these children and ramify the issues of poverty, education, healthcare and stable families (Timimi, 2005).

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Assessment Methods Essay

Diagnostic assessment is a pre assessment that determines a difficulty for the student in a precise area. This type of assessment provides teachers with information of the student’s previous awareness of the topic, their interest and attitude before instructing a lesson (McMillan 2011, p 6). Diagnostic assessment information can be collected from Summative assessments of the previous lesson. It is important to note the expectation of what the students should know, understand and be able to do at the end of the lesson as this is an integral part of an effective lesson (McMillan 2011, p 8). Formative assessment occurs during instructions, giving feedback to students on their work to assess their level and determine the next level of work activities (McMillan 2011, p 6). This type of assessment takes place during learning and helps to improve the lesson as the learning is monitored and the progress of the student is noted (McMillan 2011, p 8). The student has the opportunity to improve learning during the lesson through the feedback and send them in the right direction of learning. Learning problems are able to be distinguished during the lesson and actioned accordingly, and instructional adjustments can be made (McMillan 2011, p 8). Summative assessment takes place at the completion of the lesson to determine the student’s level of understanding, their knowledge and can physically do (McMillan 2011, p 6). This is the aim of the lesson to decide if the teaching has been positive and that the students have achieved at the anticipated level of learning. Students are graded, teachers and lessons are evaluated to assess the effectiveness of the plan (McMillan 2011, p 8). The three assessment types that form the assessment cycle are an integral part of a primary classroom learning structure. Students with learning disabilities need to be assessed in the early stages of their learning to determine the techniques of tailored learning to be applied. Using Diagnostic assessment â€Å"effective teachers were found to have tailored instruction to students’ unique needs and interests, finding just the right materials to reach their students† Robinson, G. (2008). Teaching numeracy skills a Formative assessment is then used to improve learning throughout the lesson. A summative assessment is then required to determine the student’s numeracy capabilities. Assessment is an important part of the education curriculum, to enable an effective learning environment for the students. It also allows the teacher to ensure the lesson is tailored to the students learning disabilities and there needs to achieve the learning result desired. References McMillan, J. H. (2011).

Friday, January 10, 2020

Promote equality and Inclusion in health and social Essay

Diversity, Equality and Inclusion. Diversity Diversity is the difference between individuals and groups. This can be the differences in culture, nationality, ethnic origin, religion, beliefs, sexual orientation, gender, age, social class or abilities. Equality Equality is the promotion of individual’s rights; it is giving the individual choice and opportunity. It is giving the individual respect and treating them fair. As a health and social care worker you should provide care and support to meet the own individuals needs and preferences. see more:inclusion in health and social care Inclusion In health and Social care Inclusion is when the individuals are at the centre of planning and support. An example of this is providing person centred care plans and ensure that the individual was part of putting this together. Discrimination and Inclusive Practice There are many different forms of discrimination, ‘direct discrimination’, ‘indirect discrimination’, and ‘institutional discrimination’. Discrimination can lead to individuals being treated less favourably than others, losing chances for opportunity, become labelled and be stereotyped and can cause a loss of self-esteem. Inclusive practice promotes equality and supports diversity. In health and social care settings there are policies and procedures that promote inclusive practice and challenge discrimination, they promote rights, empower individuals and remove any barriers restricting them. Individual’s differences should be valued and celebrated. Working in an Inclusive way. In health and Social care there are legislations, codes of practice and policies in the workplace setting relating to equality, diversity and  discrimination. These include the human rights act 1998, the disability discrimination act 2005, Special educational needs and disability act 2001, Race relations (Amendment) act 2000, The equality act 2010, and the European convention on human rights. The way you interact with an individual can show whether you respect that individuals beliefs, culture, values and preferences. In your workplace setting, whether you are interacting with colleagues or service users it is important that you use active listening and is helpful if you have a knowledge of individuals, for example beliefs, cultures, values and preferences. Be able to maintain and individual’s confidentiality where appropriate and communicate in the individuals prefer method. Promote diversity, equality and Inclusion An example of Inclusive practice is encouraging choices, independence, empowering them as individuals and removing any barriers to access. Promote equality and rights, for example opportunity’s should be provided and the access according to the individuals needs. As a health and social care worker it is important that you can recognise discrimination and challenge it. Recognise stereotypes in attitudes or written materials and understand and be able to adapt own beliefs and attitudes. You should know how to report concerns regarding discrimination according to own policy and procedures.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The Federal Vs. State - 1058 Words

Federal v. State There has always been a huge political debate on what powers the federal government and what powers the state government should hold. Do you feel like dual federalism gives the states too much power? Do you feel like cooperative federalism was bad because there was no distinction between the federal government and the state government? Do you think that categorical grants are better than block grants because the money has a more specific purpose? From 1789 to 1937, most fundamental powers were distinctive between the federal and state governments. The main problem with dual federalism was that states did most of the governing, and the federal government could only do tasks that were explicitly stated in the constitution.†¦show more content†¦A prime example of why there were so many issues with dual federalism was the Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) case. This case sided with southern states’ view that slaves were property. The Supreme Court also emphasized the fact that the federal government should not exceed its enumerated powers. Since slavery was illegal in some states, there were many disputes and this contributed to the start of the Civil War. The main struggle of this issue came back to the fact that the states were given too much power under dual federalism. The shift from dual to cooperative was slow but eventually happened because of the growth of categorical grants and because the Great Depression required powerful actions from the national government. Cooperative federalism existed from the New Deal era until Reagan’s presidency to somewhat to this day. With the sharing of the federal and state powers, it was difficult to distinguish between when the national government began and when the state government ended. A big disadvantage of cooperative federalism was that it prevented states from creating their own decisions when the federal policy did not work. However, it was about time that the government changed into cooperative federalism because the United States needed a more powerful national government than before. Cooperative federalism consists of block grants and categorical grants. Block grants are helpful because