Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Obesity And Its Effects On Obesity - 895 Words

Recent years health experts have been warning people to control their weight and adopt a healthier lifestyle.Over time obesity is a still problem with our society today also, its rates have tripled especially in America.It is obvious we are losing the battle against obesity. Combating obesity and its numerous illnesses will not require more drugs to lower cholesterol, diet books. It will require rethinking our environment.Other measures need to be taken to tackle this international epidemic. Addressing this issue is no easy task,Several experts have suggested implementing a junk food tax by the government. This would provide funding to regulate junk food, it is advertising, and many other areas improving our health. This idea has sparked a wide controversy in regard to the obesity issue, the benefits of such a tax plan, and our cherished individual freedom that health is our own responsibility. This essay examines, firstly the main reasons for the obesity epidemic, then focuses on the position of the government for the solutions.Some people think that the best way to reduce overweight is to taxing on junk food the effective way for government.Others, however, believe there are better alternative ways of reduce obesity such a doing more physical activity or calorie labelling would be more effectivly. There are many reasons for obesity, the first main reason is consumption of energy. People have taken more energy but used less energy in daily life, also few physicalShow MoreRelatedObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1637 Words   |  7 Pagesdestructive can effects of obesity be. First of all what is an obesity? Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual s ideal body weight. It is a very serious problem and is becoming very dangerous in today’s world. Obesity is now considered to be the second most preventable death in Ame rica, with tobacco being the first. As use of tobacco rates continues to decline, the obesity rates continue to rise. With that being said, death numbers of obesity are goingRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity970 Words   |  4 PagesObesity is the buildup of excess body fat, caused by the ingestion of more food than the body can use in which the extra calories are stored as fat. Obesity is measured by taking BMI, or body mass index of the person which is their height and weight and putting it into a formula. As stated by The Editors of Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, â€Å"A BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 equates with overweight and 30.0 and above with obesity. Morbid obesity (also known as extreme, or severe, obesity) is defined as a BMI ofRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1692 Words   |  7 Pages  Ã‚  Obesity in America is a health issue which needs to be addressed, but many do not realize that obesity is an issue that needs to be addressed in more ways than one. à ‚  Because Americans are not knowledgeable in the issue of obesity, many in society view obese people as unhealthy and irresponsible and treat them with disrespect.   How to overcome and prevent obesity, its causes, and different treatments are all ways that obesity needs to be addressed; however, the disrespect towards those who are obeseRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity Essay1282 Words   |  6 Pagesactually leading to an unhealthy lifestyle which is known as obesity. IV. Obesity is a condition of human body that is not as desirable Body Mass Index (BMI) due to accumulation of excess body fat in the blood vessels. A. According to Gary D. Foster, author of the article Primary Physicians’ Attitudes about Obesity and it’s Treatment ,this disease become epidemic in the society and not being solved as the patients’ fears to treat obesity is mainly due to their negative approaches towards this problemRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1068 Words   |  5 PagesObesity has been around for several thousands of years but hasn’t always been a serious epidemic. A higher amount of fat or stored energy used to mean a greater chance at surviving a famine, but those times are long gone in the industrialized world. As time has progressed, we’ve see an exponential growth in obesity rates despite our best efforts to slow it down. In order to contain and eventually decrease obesity rates, we would first need to know what fuels this powerful monster of the westernRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1554 Words   |  7 Pages Obesity is a condition that is characterized by excess body weight due to the overconsumption of calories in relation to the calorie loss. There are however other associated causes of obesity that have been identified by the scholars and the variables involved in the trend of this condition have a significant correlation. Different tools have been implemented overtime in the management of obesity to mitigate the short term and the long-term effects that result from this conditionRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity Essay913 Words   |  4 PagesRecent years health experts have been warning people to control their weight and adopt a healthier lifestyle.Over time obesity is a still problem with our society today also, its rates have tripled especially in America.It is obvious we are losing the battle against obesity. Combating obesity and its numerous illnesses will not require more drugs to lower cholesterol, diet books. It will require rethinking our environment.Other measures need to be taken to tackle this international epidemic. AddressingRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1612 Words   |  7 PagesApproximately 17% of children in the United States have been diagnosed as obese (Prevention, 2011). Although the prevalence of obesity has plateaued in the most recent years, the amount of children who are obese is still higher than what is desired. These obesity rates are alarming due to the effect it will have on them and their healthcare. As more children are diagnosed with obesity, the more children increase their risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and insulin resistance later as adults (NewbyRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1281 Words   |  6 PagesThe famous actor and comedian, Will Ferrell, quoted on twitter, â€Å"Obesity doesn’t run in your family, no one runs in your family†. The joke was intended to be funny, but I’m sure it hit closer to home for a lot of people more than anything else. Many problem s in America consist of low employment rates, global warming and, not to forget, obesity. What other country has issues that include the overweight factor? Exactly, none. While mostly adolescent teens to adults are struggling to turn their livesRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1092 Words   |  5 PagesObesity in America is rising with an alarming, and disturbing rate: more than one-third of adults (78.6 millions) are obese according to Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. In addition, no states in America have prevalence of obesity less than 20 percent; while the states having leading percent of obesity are Arkansas, Mississippi, and West Virginia. Obesity’s common effects on health are low life expectancy, high blood pressure, stroke, migraine, low back pain, etc. Furthermore, a recent

Monday, December 16, 2019

Child Development Is Outside Of Home Environment - 991 Words

Chapter nine in Ringel and Brandell book deal with the trauma that could develop among gay males. This paper will explore childhood and adolescence period. According to Ringel and Brandell the trauma evolve in relation to the larger life development, called â€Å"traumas of development.† That could lead to narcissistic injuries that inhibit the self-structure that displayed in a range of defensive behaviors. In addition it could happened together with different issues of early development (pp. 171-172). According to Ringel and Brandell, the main key to understand â€Å"traumas of development† is the effect of the individual home environment. Another factor in the effect on gay child development is outside of home environment. This is why it’s†¦show more content†¦175). Ringel and Brandell introduce Ornstein’s suggestion of treating trauma in with self-psychology. When keeping sense of stability is necessary to the establishment of a cohesive self. Through time the cohesive self-assist with development sense of identity. Trauma can actually jeopardize the continuation of self. Pieces of traumatic memory can appear in the form of flashbacks or within a dream jeopardizing the existence of cohesive self (p. 173). Ringel and Brandell add Ornstein’s explanation on the difference between childhood and adult trauma. The difference between them is within the attendance of a united nuclear self (p. 173). Ringel and Brandell explain that symptoms as a results of trauma usually defined as post-traumatic stress disorder. In the other hand symptoms that appear as a result of chronic interpersonal trauma starting in early childhood defined as a disorder of extreme stress not otherwise specified (p. 173). â€Å"Feeling different† by proto-gay children connect to shunned cultural images that cause emotional overstimulation and cognitive disorganization (p. 173). Ringel and Brandell emphasis that the society and outside of home environment many times is difficult enough to handle, and when children experience un-acceptance at home too it makes it even worse. In this situation the child have no one to turn to, or a proper model to follow. This resultShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Home Environment On Children1468 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract The use of child daycare has been debated endlessly. It has become hard to determine how it may aid in the development of a child’s cognition or if it hurts it instead. This is partly because of the wide variety of types of child care and the opportunities that are given to young children. Fortunately, measures have been created to help standardize what a daycare does and how it is run. In this paper, several studies are assessed and the criteria that daycares are held to are evaluated.Read MoreThe Development And Behavior Of A Child906 Words   |  4 PagesThe development and behavior of a child can be the result of different factors. The most important of them are parents and environment, mainly peers. However, in 1998, Judith Rich Harris published her book called The Nurture Assumption in which she argues that parents really do not matter very much. Harris suggests that peer group of a child is more important that parents (Scientific American). Our main goal is to provide arguments on both sides and evaluate who really has the most influence on theRead MoreThe Effects Of Homeschooling On The Cognitive Development Of Elementary Age Children1323 Words   |  6 PagesImagine what it would be like to not get to have your first day of school as a child. For a child that is home schooled, they never get to walk through the doors on their first day with a new backpack, new school supplies, and new clothes. As little as this issue may seem, is it important for people to understand the effects that homeschooling can have on the cognitive development of elementary age children because by not being exposed to the resources and relationships children can get out of publicRead MorePoverty And Poverty796 Words   |  4 PagesHow environmental factors and poverty influenced my development. Poverty played a very prominent role throughout the course of my life. I encountered various issues which influenced my psychological development and hindered my ability to pro perly process the consequences of my behavior. Also, the lack of resources limited my access to a proper education and a safe living environment. Despite the fact I am now a well-adjusted individual there is no doubt my internal and external behaviors along withRead MoreLev Vygotsky s Theory Of Cultural Development Essay1399 Words   |  6 Pagesteaching and publishing literary works, and finally turning his attention to fundamental questions of human development and learning, where he made his biggest impact in the psychological field. Vygotsky proposed a general genetic law of cultural development in which cognitive function occurs on two planes: first on the social (between individuals), followed by the individual (internalized by the child) (Bjorklund, 2005). For a number of years, his theory mainly gained attention in Russia and Eastern EuropeRead MoreEssay on The Daycare Debate1595 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the largest social controversies of the current time are the parental pressures attached to whether or not a child should attend daycare. While many parents struggle with this decision, others do not have the luxury of choice; many questions are raised asking if it is beneficial or harmful for infants and young children to attend daycare, spending the majority of their waking hours with caregivers other than their parents. There are of course many opinions and studies regarding this issueRead MoreMaking a Suitable Environment for Your Disabled Child1395 Words   |  6 PagesChildren with disabilities will make a significant improvement in their skills if they live in comprehensive and inclusive environment for them. Inclusive environment will benefit the child in several ways. The primary goal of creating an inclusive environment is to involve the disabled child with their peers, family, and the outside world. The suitable environment will support them by making modification and training on their behavior and attitude. Therefore, they will be prepared to life’s experiencesRead MoreFamily System1001 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"healthy† when it comes to development and family systems. Heathly and normal can be a matter of perspective and culture. Research has provided the understanding that what happens to a child during the developmental phases of life affect them conscious and unconsciously; with the most effect coming from within the family system. Roehlkepartain reports that spiritual development is an essential aspect that can either be a catalyst towards the ir spirituality or pull the child away from it. In relationRead MoreCompare and Contrast The first program that I observed was Victor Valley College Child Development1300 Words   |  6 PagesVictor Valley College Child Development Center. It is a Free State preschool program. The program has two sessions in each session there are 16 children. The ages range from 3-5 years old. The program serves diverse families. The program offers various types of services such as information to community resources. Also, if children need services such as speech the children are provide those services on site. The teachers are encouraged to attend various types of staff developments. The programs philosophyRead MoreBronfenbrenner Analysis Essay1174 Words   |  5 PagesCourse: Tutor: Date: Urie Bronfenbrenner is today credited and known in the psychology development field for the development of the ecological systems theory constructed to offer an explanation of the way everything in a child and their environment affects the whole child development. Bronfenbrenner ecological the ory has levels or aspects of the environment containing roles, norms, and rules defining child development namely the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosytem, the macrosystem and the chronosystem

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Impact of Power Market Monopoly

Question: Discuss about the Impact of Power Market Monopoly. Answer: Introduction: An economy is any sector that covers production, distribution, consumption of different agents, individual and institutions. A market structure is one that contains features of a single seller, unique products that runs a monopoly market. The market structure defines and sales on unique product in the market, with low or no competitions. The monopoly is expected to provide and sale the product as a sole provide, with no alternative (Koziashvili, 2011). A monopolys potential to raise prices indefinitely is its most critical detriment to consumers because it has no industry competition, a monopolys price is the market price and demand is market demand. A business monopoly market structure can influence the operations of an economy; they can dominate production and distribution of goods and services(Koziashvili, 2011). Nigeria is classified as the one of the two largest economies in Africa with a well-established capital market, and highest literacy levels. The Nigerian population has been growing rapidly over the years where it is estimated to be over 160 million people according to its 2006 census(Onazi, 2013). The large population and high literacy levels as contributed the country to be a regional power house in West Africa. In addition the country enjoys numerous natural resources which include fertile lands for agriculture, mineral solids, and large deposits of oils and gas reserves. The country is estimated to be the leading producer of oil ranked 12th in the world, in addition it is well known in production of gases in the entire worked ranked position eight(Obadote, 2009). Nigeria companies and business operations are affected by use of power. The power holding company has become a natural monopoly that is state owned. Despite several challenges facing the authority the company has taken part in nations socio-economic development encouraging Nigeria to be a well industrial society(Chukwu, 2011). Despite investments by the federal government of Nigeria it is reported that there is power outages. The outages as affected many business industries depend on it. Other challenges reporting from monopoly of the industry is unreliable service provisions to its customers. It has led to more privatization of the industry into series of successor companies. In ensuring that problems are solved an independent regulatory agency was formed as per electric power sector reform act of 2005. The agency was to improve undertaking of the power industry by issuing licenses, monitoring and regulations, and providing guidelines for operations(Fare, 2016). Statement of the problem The economy of Nigeria is characterized with divergent challenges covering different characteristics, outcomes, contradictions that directly affect its citizens. In service provision of power, Nigeria faces a challenge majority of poor service originates from the power industry (Bello, 2016). A critical scrutiny of the structure of the economy in respect to a power market monopoly market shows negative inclinations. Nigeria economy performance indicators are based on product and service provisions. The power industry controls various functions of the economy. Sales performance in companies in Nigeria has been reported to have reduced by a lower % due to cost and inconsistencies in power supply. Production industry is affected by prices charged by the power industry market monopoly(Adoghe, 2009). Recent statistics by the ministry of economic and research showed that amount produced, consumption levels, and product pricing is directly affected by monopolized decisions done in electric power industry. Statistics have shown consumption among consumers declining each year at a constant rate of 2.1% yearly which affect performance of Nigerian Economy. From this basis the study found it necessary to analyze, understand how power market monopoly structure can influence the performance economy of Nigeria. In understanding the aim the study will limit itself on sale of products and consumer demand(Iyoya, 2002). Aim of the study The purpose of this research is to find out how power market monopoly impacts sales performance of Nigerian companies. Objectives of the study The study will seek to address the following research objectives: To establish the impact of power market monopoly on sales performance in Nigeria companies. To find out how power market monopoly affects sales performance in service provision in Nigeria companies. To find out how power market monopoly affects consumers demand for sales of products and services among Nigeria companies. Research questions The study will be guided by the following research objectives: That is the impact of power market monopoly on sales performance in Nigeria companies? How does power market monopoly affect sales performance in service provision in Nigeria companies? Do power market monopoly affects consumers demand for sale of products and services among Nigeria companies? Justification and potential output of the research The outcome and results of the study will useful in addressing issues related to business market and economy. By carrying out the research it provide solutions to problems relating to economy and consumers. The outcome of the study will be useful to the Government of Nigeria in coming up with policies regarding performance of the economy caused by influence of market monopoly. The results will be useful to Ministry of economic research as additional knowledge. In addition customers will find avenue for decision making regarding monopoly market in power industry. Researchers and future scholars will find useful additional knowledge available to them. Conceptual framework Figure 1 conceptual framework The demand and sales of products and services defines performance of an economy, but is depended on the industry providing the service. The power market industry is characterized as a monopoly market with few entrants, no industry competition, and high barrier to entry. Concept of power market monopoly The term monopoly is defined by a single service provider that serves whole the national economy. The economies of scale that a firm owns make it a monopoly(Rosenthal, 2012). Majority of power in world employ monopoly because it owns supply and provisions of electric power to its citizens. Many business or organization units providing utility services have unique features or characteristics that make other firms difficult to join or sustain(Koziashvili, 2011). If any monopoly unit is not regulated it can lead to cases of poor service, and unsatisfied products. The power industry is expected to be subsidized provided at lower costs. In Europe matters of power industry is privatized which has led the government to share the burden with the private firm(Asker, 2013). In a competitive market the monopoly powers can directly affected by increase in prices, lower costs, and no innovations. In power industry the market power combines with monopoly power to have a total control of the market(Makwe, 2012). In Nigeria power is control, supervised and managed by a single firm, where they can raise prices for any service provision. Economists argue that when power is not fully regulated or maintained it can directly lead to a fallen industry(Lehdonviita, 2014). Concept of performance of company sales The economic growth and development of any nation is depended upon adequate and affordable power supply. Countries and individuals economy is measured based on the income it raises less expenditure that it consumes(Iyoya, 2002). Example of one of the current expenditure that touches all the areas of economy it is the cost of power. The economy according to economists can be measured on the basis in which it can provide quality goods and services at affordable pricing. The provision of service means that it must be adequate and sufficient enough to meet citizens of a country(Shaaban, 2014). The cost of production will be higher if the power used to produce the products is higher in comparison to the output. When products and services matrix is consumed more due to its lower value the sales of companies grows(Makwe, 2012). Investors would like to invest their resources in countries with lower cost of production. The cost of electricity as made other countries in the world to look for other alternative methods to supply power to its industries and firms(Okonjo, 2012). Sale of power industry service One of the macro service provisions in the world is the sale of power industry service to specific countries. In countries the sale of power products covers a single supplier framework agreement(Greatorex, 1994). The power industry covers energy services like conservation, management, and renewable services. The state of Nigeria only sales energy power requirements, other energy products like gases and power electrical have been left for private sector to manage(Bello, 2016). Dependability of electric power service is well known to rest upon provision of certain ancillary services. With industry integrated structure, the burden for providing some of these services should be enhanced by integrating certain utilities to compete with other generation firms(Lehdonviita, 2014). Sale of energy products directly depend on foreign barrel prices, high standard of living, transport systems, and tariffs and taxes imposed by the country(Obadote, 2009). Pricing of power industry depends with different states policies and regulations. To avoid customer exploitations power regulatory agencies have been instituted to cover customers against exploitation by cartels found in the industry. (Oyewunmi, 2016). Customer of demand on sales of products and services The economy of countries is controlled by the demand and supply matrix. If the supply is higher demand is higher to and vice versa. Consumers will demand for products which have certain characteristics and features(Shaaban, 2014). Because majority of consumers are depended on power on their daily basis it becomes difficult to work without it. The consumers cannot control the supply of power because it is controlled by a single monopoly provider(Asker, 2013). They have to tolerate with what they are being offered even if it is unfriendly, poor and expensive. One of the factors influencing customers purchasing power is lack of alternative substitutes, low competition, and acceptance of one supplier pricing. (Lehdonviita, 2014). Universally it is reported that customers will be satisfied if the service offered is of quality and delivered at the required time. In monopoly market especially power industry complains have been emanating from poor service provision. The poor service delivery has led to other countries privatizing the power electric industry(Obadote, 2009). The chapter will address the methodology applied to obtain the end results of the project. It will outline the design, data collection procedure and analysis. Research design The study will utilize descriptive explanatory and survey type of design. Descriptive explanatory and survey type of design is used to explain the cause and effect of a phenomenon(Fink, 2006). Survey design will be used to seek opinions of consumers on demand of goods and services. Both will be used to explain how electric power market monopoly impacts performance of an economy. Study area and sampling frame The study will cover ministry of Economic Research that handles matters regarding Nigerias state of economy. The ministry has collected major findings and articles regarding Nigeria economy and measure statistics of a monopolized market. From the Ministry data bank companies, businesses and units can use to develop policies regarding market structures, and economy (Asker, 2013). The study will target an average of 100 customers who will randomly visit the online forums on first to come basis. Data collection instrument and sources Both qualitative and quantitative data will be used for the study. Primary and secondary sources will be used to obtain the information(Flick, 2015). Documentary review will be done on journals, company records, and books to obtain information on impact of power market monopoly on the economy(Neuman, 2012). Online forums to customers will be conducted to obtain information regarding to sales and demand of power market products and services. Questions on sales trends, product pricing, consumer behavior and barriers to consumption opinions will be asked Data collection process and analysis The data collection of secondary will involve visiting the Ministry of Economic Research offices after a pre-visit for authorization had been done. A customized user friendly website that will facilitate online forum and discussion will be created(Taylor, 2015). Data collection period will be three working days. Data collected will be arranged and coded ready for analysis. Qualitative data will be analyzed based on jigsaw approach analogy. Jigsaw approach is where pieces of information are stitched together those that are related(Mackey, 2015). Quantitative data will be analyzed using inferential statistics. Use of mathematical measurement regression analysis, statistical modeling to be used will be presented. Y = XB1 + XB2 + XB3 Where: X= Independent variable (power market monopoly) B1 to B3= Dependent variable (performance of economy indicators) Regression will be tested to establish variables predicting other variables. References Adoghe, A. . (2009). Power sector reforms: effect on electric power supply reliability and stability in Nigeria. International journal of electrical and power engineering, 3(1), 36-42. Asker, S. (2013). On complex dynamics of monopoly market. Economic modelling, 31(1), 586-589. Bello, D. (2016, January 10). Tarriff regulated design in electrical distribution industry. Tariff regulatory design industry, pp. 12-45. Chukwu, U. . (2011). VZG electric power company estimate and axilliary service market evaluation. Power and energy society general meeting, 3(1), 1-8. Fare, R. . (2016). Market power and technology. Review industrial organization, 40(2), 134-146. Fink, A. . (2006). How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-step Guide. Beverly Hills. CA: Sage. Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A bigginers guide to doing research project. New York, United States: Sage. Greatorex, M. a. (1994). "Modeling consumer risk reduction preferences. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(4), 2-56. Iyoya, M. . (2002). Explaining African economin growth performance: a case of Nigeria. Lagos: Report on Nigeria case study prepared for economic research project. Koziashvili, A. . (2011). Monopoly vs. competition in light of extration norms. Public choice press, 148(3), 561-567. Lehdonviita, V. (2014, 10 3). Market power and pricing. In virtual economics: design and analysis, pp. 101-120. Mackey, A. . (2015). Second language research: methodology and design. New York, United States of America: Routledge. Makwe, J. A. (2012). A economic assessment of the reform of Nigeria electric market, energy and power. Lagos: MIS press. Neuman, W. . (2012). Basic of social research: qualitative and quantative approaches. London, Unted Kingdom: Sage. Obadote, P. (2009). Energy crisis in Nigeria: technical issues and solution. Industrial sector prayer conference (pp. 1-9). Lagos: Nigerian press international. Okonjo, N. (2012). Conclusions and a look forward: in reforming the unreformable lessons from Nigeria. MIT press, 15(1), 133-144. Onazi, O. (2013). The good governance of electricity: Nigeria as case study. In human rights from community: a right based approach to development, 10(3), 123-149. Oyewunmi, T. . (2016). Gas supply to power markets in Nigeria. A regulatory and economic assessement, 2(16), pages 16-24. Raper, K. . (2007). Distinguishing the source of market power. America journal of agricultural economies, 80(1), 78-90. Rosenthal, J. (2012). The ministry monopoly and market monopoly. University of Rittsburgh press, 25(3), 62-93. Shaaban, J. (2014). Renenewal and sustainable energy. London, United States: Elsevier. Taylor, S. . (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: Aguide and resource. London, United Kingdom: John Wiley sons.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

The Advantages of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Essay Example

The Advantages of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Paper One of the most controversial debates in recent history has been the human embryonic stem cell debate. Millions and millions of embryos are not used each year when they could very well lead to a cure for fatal diseases such as leukemia and cancer. As well as become a cure for neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Human embryonic stem cell research has enormous potential to cure many diseases and change the face of modern medicine. However, there is much debate against the use of embryos because many people believe that an embryo should be treated as a human being because they have the potential to become human beings. Background information on the research of embryonic stem cells is important to know before developing an opinion. â€Å"All cells come from cells† (Holland et al. 4). There are three different types of stem cells: totipotent, pluripotent, and specific stem cells. All of them have the capacity to grow, reproduce and produce specific body cells or tissues. Totipotent stem cells are totally potent and are capable of forming any kind of body cell. An individual totipotent cell has the potential to become a human being. All cells are totipotent during the early stages of an embryo (Peters). Pluripotent or multipotent stem cells are not totally potent therefore they cannot develop into a human being. Pluripotent stem cells can develop into the three major tissue types: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm (Pinon 501). Tissue specific cells are what they are, specific stem cells. They develop into specific cells. We will write a custom essay sample on The Advantages of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Advantages of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Advantages of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer For example, skin stem cells produce only skin cells, blood stem cells produce only blood cells and so on (Holland et al. 5). Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) come from an early stage embryo. Fetal stem cells are cells within the fetus that cultivate into various organs (Stem Cell 13) and adult stem cells are within a specific tissue such as the brain or bone marrow. Adult stem cells have the potential to replicate themselves and become specialized to other types of tissue (Stem Cell 13). Of all the stem cell and embryo research that has been conducted, the most important discoveries about stem cells have been discovered in recent years. In 1999, the journal â€Å"Science† declared stem cell research to be the breakthrough of the year, largely in part to the research performed by Dr. James Thomson and Dr. John Gearhart (â€Å"Breakthroughs† 1999 2-3). In 1998, Dr. James Thomson, an associate veterinarian in the University of Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, led a research team that was the first to isolate human embryonic stem cells. Thomson and his team started with a fertilized ova, embryos from in vitro fertilization, not placed in a uterus and cultured them for about four to six days. In doing this, they created a line of embryonic stem cells. Another important discovery also came in 1998, from John Hopkins University School of Medicine where Dr. John Gearhart, a professor of gynecology and obstetrics, led a research team that successfully drew human embryonic germ cells from fetal tissue. These cells are exactly like pluripotent (not totally potent and cannot develop into a human being) stem cells. Cloning has strong ties to stem cell research because both involve the use embryos. In 1997, Ian Wilmut cloned a sheep named Dolly. Wilmut has never tried to clone a human and he is still against the idea. Dolly was actually not the first animal cloned. During the 1960s, frogs were reported to be successfully cloned. But this did not attract the interest of politicians or the public. The Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, the same institute that cloned Dolly, had actually cloned sheep before. In 1995, two lambs, Megan and Morag were cloned. However, these 1995 clonings also did not attract much interest. The main reason that Dolly was so popular is that Dolly was cloned from an adult sheep that was already dead (Pinon 499). During cloning, nuclear transfer procedure takes place (Pinon 499). An egg is received from a donor female by simulating ovulation. The egg’s nucleus is removed and a nucleus from the organism to be cloned is placed in the egg. Finally, the new egg is placed in the uterus of the mother. The result does not come from sexual reproduction, however cloning does still need an egg and a uterus. Cloning of humans should never take place because of moral and ethical implications. However, using human embryos for stem cells will help millions of people worldwide who suffer from devastating diseases and disorders. Over 100 million Americans suffer from diseases that can be treated by stem cell therapy. Some of these diseases include: heart disease, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and diabetes. Many of them are fatal. Many of these diseases have little or no treatment; therefore millions of Americans are desperately looking for cures. Stem cells could revolutionize modern medicine because of its advantages. Patients that have had a stroke or damage to their spine could receive stem cell therapy that would restore their central nervous system. Congestive heart failure affects almost five million people in the United States with 400,000 more diagnosed each year. About 1. 5 million people are affected by myocardial infarction, which is the number one cause of heart muscle damage, and nearly one-third die (Holland et al. 8). Research has shown that while traditional drug therapy is effective for some patients, stem cell therapy could dramatically reduce the number of deaths contributed to heart disease each year (Holland et al. 8). Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that affects memory and everyday thinking functions usually among older people. It affects the brain areas that control thought, memory and language and is caused by a loss of nerve cells within the brain (A. D. E. A. R). Parkinson’s disease is a motor system disorder that is caused by the loss of dopamine producing cells within the brain. Dopamine, a chemical messenger, transmits signals throughout the brain. Without dopamine, nerve cells in the brain degenerate leaving patients with less control of their movements than normal. Severe trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face are the most significant symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (Parkinson’s Information). People with Parkinson’s disease have difficulty talking, walking, and even completing simple everyday activities (Parkinson’s Information). Alzheimer’s affects over four million people and Parkinson’s affects one million. Each year, 500,000 Americans will suffer a stroke. (Holland et al. 8). Using neural cells (nervous system cells) produced from stem cells can treat spinal cord injuries, stroke, and even Alzheimer’s disease and drastically reduce the suffering of these millions of Americans. Stem cells also shows promising results for people with hearing loss. Inner ear hair cells have been created from mouse embryonic stem cells at Harvard Medical School. Inner ear hair cells are microscopic hairs that stimulate hearing. Nearly 80 percent of all hearing losses are caused by damage to these inner ear hair cells. This research could lead to a cure for hearing loss (Quick 1A). Heart tissue or organs such as the liver could be grown in a laboratory. These organs could be used for transplants. It is important to remember that not all stem cells can come from a human embryo. There are some alternatives to embryonic stem cells. The most significant alternative n recent years has been the discovery of stem cells in a child’s umbilical cord. Usually, the umbilical cords have been discarded but now there are many organizations that will freeze the blood within the cord. Within umbilical cord blood are stem cells that could be used later in life to cure diseases such as dementia and leukemia. However, umbilical cord stem cell research is stil l a work in progress. Juan Sanchez-Ramos, University of South Florida, believes that only one umbilical cord blood stem cell out of a million will be able to regenerate nerve-like cells. The use of embryonic stem cells is a very controversial topic mostly because of ethic, moral and religious arguments. On the day that the cloning of Dolly was announced, President Clinton requested that the National Bioethics Advisory Commission â€Å"undertake a thorough review of the legal and ethical issues associated with the use of this technology† (Pinon 507). Many questions arise from research with embryos like stem cells and cloning. Can we play God? Is it ethical? Is it fair to let a person suffer when stem cells can present cure? Is it morally correct to deprive an embryo of its potential for life? These questions bring about much controversy and debate regarding human embryonic stem cells. The most common protest to embryonic stem cell research is that embryos will not fulfill their potential of becoming a human being. This brings about the question of: at what point does life start? Many people believe that human life begins at conception and that we have a moral obligation to preserve human life beginning at conception. There are many religious views on this issue. According to Jewish tradition, it is not until after 40 days of implantation that an embryo has moral status. A child is considered to be a part of its mother’s body until it is born. Only once the child is born is it then considered to be living its own life (Stem Cell 44). For centuries, the Roman Catholic Church deemed that life began 40 days after conception, a view adopted by Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas (Stem Cell 44). Today, the Catholic Church views life to begin at conception, the earliest possible time, and that human life must be protected starting at that point. Protestants accept embryonic stem cell research, however they oppose all other research using embryos. In 1999, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission regard the research of human embryonic stem cells as acceptable as long as it is â€Å"conducted reasonably and ethically† (Stem Cell 44). It is critical that scientists, government officials, and ethicists all agree on the appropriate definition of reasonably and ethically and establish common ground before the promising research of embryonic stem cells is actually used on humans. Government funding for embryonic stem cell research has also been a hot topic. On August 9, 2001, President George W. Bush gave permission for federal funds to be used only for research using about 60 stem cell lines. These 60 stem cell lines were approved by the National Institutes of Health. There currently are no laws prohibiting the private sector to produce stem cells, however there is some legislation in the works (Stem Cell 46). The President’s decision to limit federal funding to stem cell research draws controversy from both religious leaders and scientists. Scientists say the limited funds will setback research whereas religious leaders complained that the President broke a campaign promise (â€Å"Stemming Research† 6A). Embryonic stem cells present a very realistic cure for numerous diseases and can reduce the suffering of millions of people. Stem cell research should continue because of its promising potential to rid the world of horrific diseases like cancer. Scientists and ethicists should all agree on the correct vocabulary defining what is ethical and at what point does life really begin before human beings are included in stem cell research. Cloning, whereas is similar to stem cells because it involves the use of embryos should not be used because of moral obligations to preserve human life. The medical breakthrough of stem cells should be used to our advantage.